Wednesday, January 29, 2014

POS 21/24

Chapter 21:
"Within the 'empty spaces' inside an atom are the 'matter waves' associated with an electron's motion." (Kakalios, 247) Explain what the matter waves are according to Kakalios and how they apply to atomic theory.

Chapter 24:
What does Ironman's transistor have to do with solid-state physics?

29 comments:

  1. Chapter 21: Kakalios describes the “matter waves” as “... the key to understanding atomic physics” (Kakalios 247). He says that these waves are what are present in the seemingly empty spaces within atoms. Among other things these so-called “matter waves” could help physicists understand the notion of parallel universes. These waves also explain the change in color and emission of light by heated objects like fire pokers. The discovery of these waves and the theories surrounding them have also led to the invention of radio technology as well as the television and any other form of wireless communication.

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  2. Chapter 21:
    1. Matter waves are the gaps between atoms that are related to the object's momentum. Matter waves can interfere with other matter waves if atoms come close to each other. However, no one actually knows what they are. It does not have many specific properties, as shown when Kakalios says, "It is not an electric or magnetic field, nor can it exist distinct from the object, nor does it need a medium to propagate." (Kakalios 252). It relates to atomic theory because electrons, protons, and neutrons all have different amounts of momentum. This change in momentum causes a change in the size of the matter wave (Kakalios 253).

    Chapter 24:
    Ironman's transistor relates to solid-state physics because it "takes the directionality of the electrical current of a diode and makes the internal electric field changeable." (Kakalios 306). This means that a transistor can allow for a diode's electrical flow direction to change. A diode is a semiconductor where the energy from it can only flow in one direction. A transistor can change that direction. Solid state physics is the branch of physics that deals with conductivity and other electrical things (Dictionary.com). The transistor relates to it because it changes something that is related to electricity in a diode.

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  3. Chapter 21:
    According to Kakalios matter waves have to do with an object’s momentum but, it is not a physical wave like a light wave or sound wave, like Kakalios says: “There is a wave associated with the motion of any matter, and the greater momentum of the object, the shorter the wavelength of this wave. When something moves, it has momentum. The physicist Louis Broglie suggested in 1924 at associated with this motion is some sort of “matter-wave” connected to the object, and the distance between the adjacent peaks or troughs for this wave depends on the momentum of the object.”(Kakalios, 252). However, he also says it can still interfere with physical substances like the ripples when two stones hit the water close to each other. No scientist or physicist or anyone can give you an exact answer really it is just described as the miracle exception.

    Chapter 24:
    Solid state physics is the the branch of physics that studies the properties of materials in the solid state, some of these being: electrical conduction in crystals of semiconductors and metals; superconductivity, and photoconductivity. Ironman’s transistor has to do with solid state physics is the aspect that it is a conductor for electricity. Kakalios says: “...transistors are values that regulate the flow of an electrical current through a circuit.”( Kakalios, 298). I think this relates to Iron man because his transistor is able to conduct electricity away from Iron man’s heart so it doesn’t get damaged.

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  4. Chapter 21:
    Matter waves are, “...not physical waves, but they have physical consequences,” (Kakalios 252). The matter waves correlate directly to the object’s momentum, where the smaller the mass, the bigger the matter waves. This directly correlates with electrons. The electrons are very small, with small momentums because they are connected to the nucleus by a force, so their wavelengths are very big, and they are constantly being interfered by the other electrons, and the electrons go in constant motion away from each other. Also, the wavelengths in different atoms interact with each-other and bring them towards each-other, making compounds and molecules.

    Chapter 24:
    Solid state physics have to do with electricity and magnetism. A transitioner conducts electricity through a circuit. Transitioners are semiconductors, made out of silicon because it is neither a metal nor an insulator. The transitioner will help Iron Man regulate his suit so that he is not standing still. He would be able to control the energy in his suit, and the transitioner will control how much energy goes into each part of the suit. This has to do with Solid State Physics because the transitioner has to do with electricity and controlling the electricity.

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  5. 21:
    Dr. Kakalios explains matter-waves as the result of an atom’s motion. These matter-waves are contained in the empty spaces of an atom, and they are both a wave and a particle. At the same time, these matter waves are not waves and also not particles. Matter-waves in the simplest form are photons. “...the poker became hotter, emitted light...” (Kakalios 248) These matter-waves create all forms of light, from infrared to ultraviolet. Measuring these matter-waves result in heat and magnitude of the light. These matter-waves are still mostly unknown because when working with objects these small, it is not always to completely understand everything about it.
    24:
    Iron man’s transistor is important to solid-state physics because “...a small voltage can be magnified...” (Kakalios 306). This means that Iron Man could increase how magnetic his electromagnet was without actually changing the amount of energy it needs. Without a transistor, Iron Man would not have the power necessary to control his whole body. Without the transistor, Iron Man would be unable to move, because his suit would weigh way too much for him to walk in. Iron Man’s technology is dependent on the transistor because none of the high-tech gear would work because it needs to constantly receive signals. Without these signals, Iron Man would be just as good as a hunk of Iron.

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  6. Based on the text the “matter waves” are the “key to understanding atomic physics.”(Kakalios 247) In between matter there is no empty space. In the space is matter waves and is what gives the atoms momentum and , suggested by Louis de Broglie, the distance between adjacent peaks depends on momentum. Now matter waves are not physical waves they are a light. Matter waves can interfere when two objects pass each other and they're ripples interfere with each other. Kakalios equates this to throwing two stones into a lake and their ripples intersect. The thing about these matter waves are is that no one actually really knows what they are, most physicist don't even know.

    Question 2
    Solid state physics is defined as “. The branch of physics that deals with the physical properties of solid materials, especially the electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and structural properties of crystalline solids.” And Kakalios says, “transistors actually ue power,but the rate at which they use power in order to amplify a weak signal is much less than the old amplification technique.” The way Kakalios relates it to Iron Man is that he would have to keep recharging, but he actually wouldn't be recharging, he would be transferring the energy from a battery source.

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  7. Chapter 21:
    Kakalios says that matter waves "move along with [an] object." Not much is known about matter waves, but they are understood to be the matter between particulates. It relates to atomic theory because, as Kakalios says, "electrons... have small momentum... [so they have] bigger matter-wave wavelength." Also, only certain wavelengths can fit into a complete cycle of the electrons around the nucleus, so the matter waves stay at the same point. The electrons are "plucked" and released, causing the matter wave to take on a higher and lower energy values.

    Chapter 24:
    Ironman's transistor is "a valve that regulates the flow of electrical current through a circuit." The transistor is a diode, which means that it sends energy from only one direction, rather than allowing the energy to circulate. This related to solid state physics because it created a semi conductor. One of the characteristics of solid state physics is "electrical conduction in crystals of semiconductors and metals," according to princeton.edu. The transistor becomes a semi conductor, so Iron Man has to recharge it very often.

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  8. Chapter 21: According to Kakalios, matter waves are "within the 'empty spaces' inside an atom", this means that an atom doesn't have empty spaces. Matter waves are created in order to fill the space where nothing would otherwise be occupying. Electron motion is what creates the matter waves, making matter waves and the motion and momentum of electrons directly correlate. The waves are important to the atom because they keep it filled and in motion. Matter waves occupy all space in an atom where there are no protons, Electrons or neutrons that have an electrical charge.

    Chapter 24: Iron Man's transistor is related to solid state physics because Iron man's suit is based off of transistors. This is very important because the transistor was able to turn small amounts of energy into a larger output, at a very low energy conversion loss. This allowed Iron man to not need as much power stored in batteries, to do the operations he was able to perform. It also meant that he would have to "recharge" less often because his suit would use power faster than it would recharge, but it would not need to be recharged as often.

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  9. Chapter 21: Kakalios states that 'matter waves' are tagalongs that have no real meaning themselves, but they describe all of atomic physics. "the matter-wave associated with an object's momentum... it is just along for the ride, moving along with the object." (Kakalios 252) The matter-wave is not so much as affecting to other things as it is representative of a number. He also mentioned that when two sets of ripples affect each other, the matter waves keep on going at the same rate as before, even though the water itself isn't moving with them still.

    Chapter 24: Iron man's transistors are probably very small transistors, and a transistor is a device that has at least three ports, and when electricity of either amount (positive or negative) is put in it is reversed and put out almost equally or stronger."as it's (the transistor) ability to amplify and modulate voltages has had a profound impact on all of our lives." (Kakalios 287) The transistor has to do with solid-state physics in that the electricity is always located inside of solids and it directly impacts the work and power being used on an object.

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  10. Chapter 21: When Kakalios was talking about the “empty spaces” inside an atom, he was talking about how, “Most of an atom is indeed empty space between the positively charged nucleus and the average location of the negatively charged electrons (Kakalios, 247).” Matter waves are created in order to occupy the empty space within an atom. These waves are associated with the electron's motion because their motion is what creates the matter waves in the empty spaces. Matter waves are basically waves of kinetic energy created by the motion of electrons. The waves “fill” the empty spaces, and the matter waves keep the atom in motion.

    Chapter 24:
    Solid-state physics is defined as “The branch of physics that deals with the physical properties of solid materials, especially the electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and structural properties of crystalline solids (The Free Dictionary).” Kakalios said that Iron Man’s transistor, "takes the directionality of the electrical current of a diode and makes the internal electric field changeable." (Kakalios 306). This means that a transistor can change the direction in with the diode’s electrical flow is going. This is related to solid-state physics because solid state physics deals with physical properties of electromagnetism, which Iron Man’s transistor displays.

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  11. Chapter 21
    Matter waves are waves of kinetic energy created by the movement of electrons. The kinetic energy of the electrons move in waves, creating “matter waves”. “Matter waves” can be applied to atomic theory in the way that atoms don’t implode. The electrons are constantly giving off waves of kinetic energy, they would push outward from all directions, making the electron repel things close to it. “Matter waves are not physical waves, but they have physical consequences (Kakalios 252).” This is shows that even “matter waves” aren’t visible, they do have physical effects. For example, with the nucleus pulling inward, and the electrons pushing outward the atom can stay stable.

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  12. Chapter 24
    Ironman`s transistor relates to solid state physics, because it changes the direction of the current in a diode. On page 306 Kakalios says, “A transistor takes the directionality of the electrical current of a diode and makes the internal electric field changeable.” This is saying with a transistor the direction of the current in the diode is changeable. This relates to solid state physics because, solid state physics deal with the electrical conduction of semiconductors, like the diode. The transistor is changing the conductivity of the diode, therefore bringing it into the world of solid state physics.

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  13. In chapter number twenty one, James Kakalios is talking about matter waves and how the are what fill the gaps in atoms and they are not well understood, due to their size and nature. He goes on to say that they play a role in determining movement in an atom in a sort of way. They also are not real waves he says, but they can still have an effect, as they do on motion of atoms. Overall, he says that they are important but not much is know about them to determine much.

    Solid state physics deal with the way that a solid material behaves. In chapter twenty four this is specifically applied to the transistors within Iron Man’s suit. They have to do with solid state physics as they can manipulate the flow of electricity within Iron Man’s suit. They only let it flow in a single direction

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  14. These mater waves that Kakalios describes are like no other waves. They are not electric fluctuations like light. Not pressure increasing and decreasing like sound.“There is a wave associated with the motion of any matter, and the greater the momentum of the object, the shorter the wavelength of this wave.” (Kakalios, 252)
    So the matter wave is associated with momentum, but it is not a physical wave. Though it may not be physical, it can still interfere with physical actions, and scientist have no idea why. It is referred to as the Miracle exception.

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  15. Iron Mans transistor can change the direction of the electrical current in a diode, and therefore change its solid state physics. “A transistor takes the directionality of the electrical current of a diode and makes the internal electric field changeable.” (Kakalios 306) This means that if the direction of the current is changed in a diode, it can change the state of a solid by changing the diode and its electricity because solid state physics has to do with semiconductors and a diode is a semiconductor. If a diode is changed, it is changing its solid state physics.

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  16. Chapter 21: In Kakalios words, matter waves are "the key to understanding atomic physics (page 247)." Between an atom's matter, there is empty spaces. Matter waves is what fills these empty spaces in the atoms. Without these matter waves, the atom would just be empty. These matter waves are essentially waves of kinetic energy made from electrons. The kinetic energy from an electron makes waves, matter waves. This wave is not physical, it is just a wave associated with momentum. Although the wave is not physical, it can trigger physical actions. The reason for these matter waves triggering physical actions is unknown to scientist currently.

    Chapter 24: Solid state physics is a branch of physics that focuses on the physical properties, more specifically electromagnetic, thermodynamic and structural properties of crystalline structures. Kakalios states on page 306 how Iron Man's translator applies to this theory, "A translator takes the directionality of the electrical current of a diode and makes the internal electrical field interchangeable." In simpler terms, Kakalios is saying is the direction of an electrical current is changed in a diode, the state of a solid can be changed by changing the diode. This is because Solid State physics has to do with the physical aspects electromagnetism. Iron Man's translator displays these physical properties of electromagnetism.

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  18. Chapter 21:
    Matter waves, according to Kakalios, are the space in between electron orbits. These waves are the wavelengths of the electrons and these wavelengths all depend on the momentum of the electron. This is important to the atomic theory because it talks about how electrons can only be at one speed or another around the nucleus, but not in between. So, “Only if the energy of the wind exactly corresponded to the difference in kinetic energy from 50 to 60 mph . . . would the car ‘accept’ this push and move to a higher speed” (Kakalios 251). This just shows how electrons have to be in one orbit or the other.

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  19. Chapter 24:
    Since, “A transistor takes the directionality of the electrical current of a diode and makes the internal electric field changeable . . .” (Kakalios 306), it changes the flow of electricity. This applies to solid-state physics because the transistor allows a small input of electricity to signal how much electricity to let flow through. Though this requires reserve electricity it is important for Ironman because it helps the electricity in his reserve be directed quickly. With large, moving parts it would take a while to send energy to the wanted area. Through the transistor transfer became fast, solid, or with no moving, and could be miniaturized to almost any size.

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  20. Iron Man’s transistor can manipulate electrical current in a diode. According to Kakalios “A transistor takes the directionality of the electrical current of a diode and makes the internal electric field changeable” (Kakalios 306). This relates to solid state physics because this branch of physics covers primarily electromagnetism and thermodynamics. The transistor can change the amount of electricity that is allowed to flow through the diode. This means that Iron Man can direct electricity through his suit quickly. With most other methods of transferring electricity it would take far longer than it does with a transistor.

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  21. 21. Matter waves are very important in the world of atomic physics according to Kakalios (page 247). According to Kakalios, matter waves relate to an object's momentum and are inside of an atom’s matter where there's empty space. The matter waves would go inside those empty spaces. They correlate with an electron’s kinetic energy and even affect the motion of atoms.

    24. Solid-state physics includes Ironman’s transistor by how a transistor conducts energy. Transistor’s conduct electricity through a circuit, and solid-state physics include different ways to conduct energy.

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  22. Chapter 21:
    According to Kakalios, matter-waves are associated with an electron’s motion, and “the distance between adjacent peaks or troughs for this wave (its wavelength) depends on the momentum of the object.” (Kakalios 252). They are also present in the spaces between atoms. He also says that matter-waves are “the key to understanding atomic physics.” (Kakalios 247). Matter-waves relate to atomic theory because each particle in an atom has a different amount of momentum. The differences in momentum between the particles of atoms can cause changes in the matter-waves, and they thereby affect each other.

    Chapter 24:
    Kakalios says that “a transistor takes the directionality of the electrical current of a diode and makes the internal electric field changeable,” and because of this, the transistor relates to solid-state physics (Kakalios 306). Solid-state physics deals with electrical charges and currents as well as the conductivity of objects, and Ironman’s transistor is affected by electrical currents of a diode. A diode is a conductor that only allows electricity to flow in one direction, and this also relates to conductivity and how electrical current can change how Ironman’s transistor functions.

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  24. Chapter 21: According to Kakalios, matter waves are "within the 'empty spaces' inside an atom", this means that an atom really has no empty spaces. In order to fill in the empty spaces the atom creates matter waves to fill in the gaps in itself. These waves are associated with the electron's motion. That motion is what creates the matter waves in the empty spaces. The waves are important to the atom because they keep the atom filled and moving all around otherwise known as motion. This relates to atomic theory because matter waves are minuscule waves that are important to the atom.

    Chapter 24: Solid-state physics according to wikipedia is defined as "the branch of physics that studies the properties of materials in the solid state: electrical conduction in crystals of semiconductors and metals; superconductivity; photoconductivity". The reason this relates to Ironman's transistor is because he uses certain 'super' materials included in the study of solid-state physics to make it practically indestructible. These materials are what make much of the things he does possible.

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  25. In chapter 21, Mr. Kakalios says that so-called “‘matter-waves’ are the key to understanding atomic physics” (Kakalios 247). This means that scientists everywhere use this basic understanding of matter to figure out exactly how matter is constructed. The “matter-waves”, as Kakalios refers to them, are small pulses of energy called photons. These photons occur whenever an electron changes which valence it’s in (electrons don’t just stay in their first valence), and for the amount of energy needed to pass between them, a photon is emitted to make up the difference. This applies to atomic theory because it reveals that every part of an atom is in motion.

    In Chapter 24, Kakalios talks about transistors and how they were used in Iron Man’s suit for his repulsors (which are a physical impossibility) and his thrusters (much more plausible). Solid state physics is the study of solid matter through quantum mechanics or studies of crystals. Transistors work by taking electronic signals and turning them into electric energy. This means that when Iron Man needs to activate his thrusters or repulsor beams, he can just make a gesture or say a word, which are turned into electronic signals and sent to the transistors, and the transistors take the energy required to fire his lasers or take off and fly.

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  26. Matter waves are "within the empty spaces inside an atom", according to Kalalios. The matter waves are a part of an objects momentum. The waves effect the energy in an atom, causing the motion of that atom to sometimes change. This is important to atomic theory because the energy is at a certain speed. The circulating atoms, going around the other atoms can change. This is why electrons orbit one another to stay balanced.

    chapter 24:
    The transistor works when it "takes the direction of the electrical current of a diode and makes the internal electric field changeable." (Kakalios 306). When this happens the gesture he makes will connect to the transistors, letting the thrusters, and other parts of the machine propel him.

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  27. Chapter 21-
    The matter wave that Kakalios describes are waves that are found within unoccupied spaces in atoms, and they relative to momentum. These waves can be found between subatomic particles. However, they differ from waves of light because light waves are electric waves, and they differ from rays of sound because they are not compressions and expansions from air. The way that they are related to atomic theory is that in an atom, particles float around, and this allows space for these momentum-carrying matter waves. The momentum these waves carry can also be tied to atomic physics.

    Chapter 24-
    According to Kakalios, the transistor relates to solid-state physics and ratios pertaining to the amount of energy constantly moving through a single system, (in this case, the transistor), because everything needs to be recharged after it is used. While electricity that is being conducted can be amplified to greater degrees, his transistor would probably end up using more power in energy to enlarge the amount of energy that is emitted than what it would take to emit what he needed. This can be compared to a situation in which matter is changed to the point of nearly being a quantity of matter that has been created or destroyed.

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  28. Chapter 21-
    Matter waves fill up empty spaces in an atom’s matter. The atom changes and controls the matter wave's wavelengths depending on the how fast or slow the atom's momentum is moving.

    Chapter 24-
    Solid state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy (Wiki) and Iron Man uses his transistors for his repulsors and thrusters. A big part of solid state physics electromagnetism and this relates to Iron Man’s transistors because they can manipulate electrical currents in a diode.

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  29. Chapter 21- Based on the text the “matter waves” are the “key to understanding atomic physics.”(Kakalios 247) There is no in between empty space its all matter. The atom controls the matter wavelengths depending on how fast the momentum of the atom is.

    Chapter 24- Kakalios talks about transistors. Kakalios syas “a transistor takes the direction of the electrical current of a diode and makes the internal electric field changeable,” this means that Ironman's transistor is being affected by electrical currents of a diode. That relates to conductivity and how electrical current can change how Ironman’s transistor functions.

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